Human Torch (Android) (Marvel Comics)

The Human Torch, also known as Jim Hammond, is a fictional character, a Marvel Comics-owned superhero. Created by writer-artist Carl Burgos, he first appeared in Marvel Comics #1 (Oct.1939), published by Marvel's predecessor, Timely Comics.
The "Human" Torch was actually an android created by scientist Phineas Horton. He possessed the ability to surround himself with fire and control flames. In his earliest appearances, he was portrayed as a science fiction monstrosity, but quickly became a hero.
The Human Torch was one of Timely Comics' three signature characters, along with Captain America and Namor the Sub-Mariner. Like many superheroes, the Human Torch fell into obscurity by the 1950s. In 1961, Marvel recycled his name and powers into a new, unrelated Human Torch, a member of the Fantastic Four (who actually was human). Unlike Captain America and the Sub-Mariner, the original Human Torch has had only a small presence in the post-1950s Marvel comic books and is closely associated with the Golden Age.

Publication information

Publisher: Timely Comics, Atlas Comics, Marvel Comics
First appearance: Marvel Comics #1 (Oct. 1939)
Created by: Carl Burgos

In-story information

Alter ego: Human Torch 
Phonetic: hjúmən tɔ́rtʃ
Translation:
Notable aliases: Jim Hammond; Pappy (Toro's nickname for him); First of the Marvels; Agent Jim Hammonl Agent Jim (Mik's nickname for him)
Relatives: Phineas Horton (creator); Vision (created by Ultron based upon Horton's designs); Tara (based on Horton's designs); Inhuman Torch (based on Horton's designs); Pyronanos (nanotech based on Horton's designs); Adam II (creation of Phineas Horton); Volton (creation of Phineas Horton)

    Note: As an android, the Human Torch had no true blood relatives, however he could theoretically claim kinship to other android models whose     design functions were similar to his own.

Affiliations: Partner of Toro; partner of Sun Girl; Aarkus, Andromeda, Thomas Halloway, Blazing Skull, Blonde Phantom, Brian Falsworth, Winter Soldier, Captain America, Captain Kerosene, Destroyer, Roger Aubrey, Ferret, Living Lightning, Union Jack, Miss America, Mockingbird, Namor, Spirit of '76, Invader-1, Peter Noble, Thin Man, John F. Walker, White Tiger (Evolved Tiger), Whizzer

Team affiliations: S.H.I.E.L.D., Invaders, All-Winners Squad, V-Battalion, West Coast Avengers, Heroes for Hire, Legion of the Unliving, former member of the New Invaders, former CEO of Oracle, Inc., Avengers, Secret Avengers, Descendants, New York Police Department

Enemies: D'Spayre, Aarkus, Adam II, Adolf Hitler, Agent Axis, Sardo, Asbestos Lady, Baron Blood, Baroness Blood, Baron von Strucker, Benito Mussolini, Blue Bullet, Controller, Michael Stockton, Donar, Future Man, Hermann Göring, Emperor Hirohito, Human Meteor, Hyena, Inhuman Torch, Iron Cross, Isbisa, Lady Lotus, Madame Death, Mad Thinker, Magneto, Master Man, Master Of The World, Master Pandemonium, Mole-Man, Namor, Frankenstein's Monster (Nazi), Scarlet Scarab, Shuma-Gorath, Spider Queen, Strongman, Teutonic Knight, Catman, The Man With No Face, Parrot, Ultron, U-Man, Un-Human, Warrior Woman, X-Ray, Doctor Zhang Chin

Abilities: Fire manipulation, Ability to survive without oxygen for long periods, flight, adept street fighter
Base Of Operations: S.H.I.E.L.D. Base Designation 4201 in Stamford, Connecticut; originally Manhattan, New York City, New York; London, England, United Kingdom and the European theater (during World War II); Korea (Korean War); later Avengers Compound, Malibu, California; later, mobile; later Blaketon, Illinois

Status

Alignment: Good
Identity Secret: Public
Race: Android
Citizenship: American
Marital Status: Single
Occupation: Adventurer; War veteran; former CEO of Oracle, Inc
Education: No formal education; Capacity for creative intelligence and unlimited self-motivated activity

Characteristics

Gender: Male
Height: 190.5 cm
Weight: 136 kg
Eyes: Blue
Hair: Blond
Unusual Features:

Origin

Origin: Created in a laboratory in 1939 by Professor Phineas T. Horton. Largely considered the world's first fully functional android. The Horton Cells, however, reacted to oxygen giving him pyrokinetic powers.

Universe: Earth-616 
Place of Birth: Brooklyn, New York

History

Preface

The Human Torch is one of the first super-heroes of the Marvel Universe, his history spanning over 70 years of publications. Below is an unabridged version of his history.
Regarding 1940s Publications: It has been revealed[1] that a number of the Human Torch's wartime adventures were actual comic book adaptations published as wartime propaganda, particularly this adventures with the Young Allies but they are based on actual facts despite obvious embellishments and artistic license on the part of the comic book creators.

Origins

The original Human Torch began his existence in 1939 in the laboratory of Professor Phineas T. Horton, one of the pioneers in the field of artificial intelligence and robotics. The culmination of Horton's research was an android who mimicked virtually all of the functions of a human being, including independent thought, but was composed entirely of synthetic materials. Horton worked closely with fellow scientist James Bradley who grew disgusted by Horton's hope for fame and fortune and dissolved their partnership[2].
The one apparent flaw in the android's design concerned the photoelectric solar cells which covered every square inch of his body and served as his power source. The cells were too volatile and caused the epidermis of the android to burst into flame upon contact with air but without harming the android itself. However, it has been suggested that due to Horton's Jewish background, he purposely created the Torch's flame powers to be a living embodiment of revenge against the Nazis for their extermination of Jews during World War II, that his flaming body would be symbolic of those victims whose bodies were incinerated after the Nazis had killed them[3]. However such claims have not been explored further at this time.

Horton revealed the Torch's existence to the public at a press conference in November 1939, at which he demonstrated how the Torch would burst into flame if he introduced a small amount of oxygen into the transparent container in which he was confined. The news media proclaimed the Torch to be a potential menace, and so Horton buried the android in his supposedly airtight tube within cement until such time as he could find a way either to prevent the android from bursting into flame or learn how to control its flame.
There was a slow leak in the tube, however, and eventually enough oxygen entered so that the android's flame ignited explosively, permitting him to escape. Wreaking havoc in innocent exploration of his environment, the android, inaccurately dubbed the Human Torch, soon realized the panic he was causing and, unable to control his flaming power, doused his flame in a swimming pool[5][4][6][7]. In his infancy, the Human Torch was duped by a crook named Anthony Sardo into committing crimes. Realizing what he was doing was wrong, the Torch confronted Sadro and during the fight was doused in Nitro Glycerine which was the catalyst that allowed him to control his flame from that point on. In attempting to bring Sardo to justice, the criminal was killed in battle. When Horton suggested that the two use his powers to obtain fame and fortune, the Torch rejected this idea leaving Horton's home a flaming inferno which seemingly killed the scientist, however he would resurface later alive and well[5].
In his second recorded adventure, the Human Torch had adopted a human identity and brough Blackie Ross to justice after he
sabotaged a number of race cars

1940

In the year 1940, the Human Torch began earning a reputation for himself as a champion of justice. In his third recorded adventure, he prevented the crooked Mr. Ritton from exploiting Martians into helping him conquer the world in exchange for TNT to help them fight off invaders to their world[9].
Following that encounter, the Human Torch decided to adopt the name "Jim Hammond" and travelled to New York City. There he found the city under Martial Law thanks to attacks by Dr. Manyac and his army of Green Flames. The Torch helped defeat Manyac and his minions with the help of his first true ally, a New York police officer named Johnson[10]. The Torch would soon work again with Johnson helping recover stolen medical supplies and deliver them to the island community of Orton[11], also during this time stopped two crooks named Patch and Turo from robbing banks in Midtown[12].

After saving the life of an undercover police officer who was discovered by the mobster he was assigned to spy on, the Torch was called a "good guy" for the first time[13]. This prompted him to get Johnson to assist him in getting a job on the New York City police force. Aquiring the job, he was officially sanctioned to use his powers and was able to act on the cities behalf while out of police uniform since they were easily burned away whenever the Torch used his powers. In his first official case as a police officer, the Torch brought crooked politician Roglo to justice[14]. Becoming lonely, the Human Torch sought out Professor Horton and asked for his advice. Horton told him of Fred Raymond an Asbestos expert and his wife Nora. Both were terminally ill and raising their son Thomas "Toro" Raymond. Going to visit the Raymond home to learn what Horton was alluding to, the Torch found the Raymond's being terrorized by the criminal known as Asbostos Lady. The Torch fought off Asbestos Lady and her minions. Noticing that Toro had slept through the entire battle, the Raymond's told him how their son was apparently immune to fire. After the meeting with the Raymond's the Torch soon left vowing to keep a secret eye on them in case Asbestos Lady threatened them again[15].

Soon after his induction into the police force, the Human Torch had the first of many clashes with the Atlantean mutant known as the Sub-Mariner. Their battle raged across New York City and eventually the Sub-Mariner gained the upper hand when trapping the Torch in an air tight contained. Ultimately the Sub-Mariner was convinced to let the Torch go and leave by police woman Betty Dean[16][17][18][19]. Immediately after his encounter with the Sub-Mariner, the Torch next defended the Atwell Gas Company from a crook named Palmer[19]. One of the Torch's most prevenent early foes was the mysterious J.B. whom the Torch found responsible for allowing the Black Plague to spread through a slum part of town[20]. Wanted by police after burning down the slums in order to contain the spread of infection, the
Torch eventually tracked down J.B. revealing her to be Jane Bradly, the daughter of a disgraced politician Nick Bradley and turned her over to the police, the charges against the Torch were then dropped[21]. He next stopped a group of crooks who gunned down subway commuiters and stole their valuables[22].

The Torch soon began to question what it was like to be human and sought out his creator. Finding an old photograph in the ruins of the place of his birth, the Torch visited a former colleague of his "father", Fred Raymond, and decided to visit his family again. By this time Fred was distraught over the fact that his wife Nora was deathly ill and that his son Thomas had gained mysterious flame powers. Somehow thinking the Torch was to blame, Raymond ordered the Torch to leave his home.

World War II

1941

1941 saw the Torch bring to justice rogue members of the Fire-Men cult and their Fire-Monsters unleashed upon New York City[24][25]. The Torch soon also had his first clash with Nazi spies when he prevented Pinhead from bombing New York City[26]. The Torch soon found himself working with an unlikely ally, the Sub-Mariner to stop an invasion of Imperial Japanese forces who were attempting to dig a tunnel to Alaska[27]. This alliance proved to be short lived as the Sub-Mariner soon attacked New York City again, but was brought down by the Human Torch and Captain America[23].
Hearing a radio report about the death of Toro's parents in a train wreck, the Torch, he suspected the work of Asbestos Lady and rushed to Toro's aid after hearing he was adopted by a local circus owner. On the way, the Torch was confronted by Asbestos Lady and her minions who managed to douse his flame and toss him into a tanker filled with water. Despite being trapped in water, the Torch was able to flame on part of his body to create enough heat for the steaming water to burst open the tanker. Asbestos Lady and her men attempted to escape but were captured by the Torch and turned over to the police[15].
The Human Torch soon was reintroduced to Thomas Raymond, at Pop's Circus as Toro the Flaming Boy. When the circus strong man Samson stole a Rayon Gun, the Torch and Toro teamed up to return it[28]. Soon Toro was targeted by the Nazis and with spies disguised as his parents was convinced to return with them to Nazi Germany to assist in the production of weapons for war. Discovering the falsehood, the Human Torch travelled to Germany and battled
Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. Convincing Toro that he had been duped the two heroes returned to the United States[29].

Taking in Toro as his ward, teaching him how to use his powers[30]. The Human Torch and Toro clashed with foes such as the Brain[31], Blackjack[32], the Hag[33], Dr. Smart[34], and arsonist Hawk Rivers[35]. By this time, Toro had allied himself with a members of Bucky's Sentinels of Liberty fan-club to form the Young Allies. When the youths were trapped in China in the middle of a Tong war along with a British spy, Captain America and the Human Torch came to their rescue. This would be the first of many times the Torch came to Toro's assitance when adventuring with the Allies[36]. Later the Torch and Toro battled the Japanese spy known as Matzu[37]. Later, Betty Dean and the Ferrit recruited the Torch, Toro, Sub-Mariner and the Angel to assist in searching for missing scientist Philo Zog, inventor of the robot known as Electro. They rescued Zog from the Torch's old foe Dr. Manyac who was forcing Zog to build an army of robotic Green Flames for the Nazis[38].

The Human Torch and Toro would next clash once again with the Sub-Mariner when he was convinced by another undersea dweller named Rathia to attempt to invade the world. After Toro was injured in battle, the Torch convinced Namor the errors of his way and helped him defeat Rathia[39]. Working as a pair the Human Torch and Toro clashed with Prince Itor and his Idol of Death[40], saved the nation of Alslavia from Nazi invasion[41], and embezzler Mr. Howe[42]. Later, in Pennsylvania, the flaming duo stopped Nazi spy N-4 from destroying a new prototype tank[43].

The Human Torch and Toro then clashed with their first recurring foe as a pair, the fire proof criminal known as the Parrot, returning him to justice after a jail break[44]. The Torch and Toro next took down the so-called "King of the Crime Syndicates"[45] and foil a jail break by the Parrot, which ultimately ended in the foes death[46]. During this period they also stopped an oil smuggling operation by the Japanese Black Dragon Society[47], illegal arms dealer Mr. Falton, and the suicidal Legion of Despair[48]. Later the Torch and Toro were asked to come to England to help escort Dr. Barrow and protect the plans for his newly invented engine as they took a train through the English countryside. The train was soon attacked by Teutonic Knight who succeeded in kidnapping the doctor. When the Torch and Toro attempted to chase after his getaway plane, the Knight dropped a bomb on a rail bridge forcing the two heroes to pull back and repair the damage to save the train and lost the Knight's trail[49].

On December 7th, 1941 American authorities learned of a joint attack on American soil by Nazi, subersive Atlantean and Nazi forces. One of these attacks was on Pearl Harbor, and the Human Torch and Toro were sent on this mission to help turn back the invasion. It was a day that would stand in American history as the aftermath would end with the United States officially entering World War II[30]. So horrified by the senseless destruction caused by the Japanese forces, the Human Torch and Toro fought back in the days following the attack on Pearl Harbor, attacking Japan directly slaying Japanese Admiral Nodope in the process[50].

Returning to the United States, on December 22, 1941 the Human Torch and Toro were assigned on in secret as part of the security for Dr. Anderson, one of the men involved in Operation Rebirth the experiment the created Captain America. When Anderson was captured by Nazi spies and forced to use his knowledge to empower their agent Master Man. Tracking Anderson to the secret Nazi lab, the two heroes were to
late to stop the empowerment of Master Man. The super-strong Nazi easily bested the two heroes and the Nazis fled after shooting Dr. Anderson. Rushing Anderson to a hospital, the Torch and Toro soon met with Captain America and Bucky. Realizing that the Nazis were plotting to attack a ship carrying British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to the United States they rushed to the scene. There with the assistance of the Sub-Mariner, the heroes stopped the Nazis and when Master Man's powers failed him captured the villain and turned him over to the authorities. After his rescue, Winston Churchill suggested that the group band together, suggesting they call themselves the Invaders[51]. In the aftermath of that battle, President Roosevelt officially sanctioned the group[30].

The Invaders then went to England to begin investigating a Nazi scientist named Brain Drain who was the apparent mastermind behind the Master Man project. After an air raid in London, they met a woman named Hilda a near amnesiac with a strange ring that led them to a location in Germany. This led to a battle against three super-humans Froh, Donar and Loga who believed themselves to be the Teutonic Gods[52]. As the Torch and the others battled these so-called gods, Cap and Hilda clashed with Brian Drain, learning that the super-beings were not gods but members of the Tekeli-Li race. The battle ended with the aliens sacrificing their lives to destroy Brain Drain's lab in a massive explosion which the Invaders were able to escape.

1942

Returning to the United States at the start of 1942, the Invaders intercept a Nazi U-Boat and steal a coded message which tells of another attempt on Winston Churchill's life on his way back to England following his US visit. The attack was to be carried out by the Atlantean traitor U-Man. When Namor attempted to go to fight U-Man alone, the Torch and other Invaders attempted to stop him, but Namor managed to escape with the help of Bucky[54]. After confusion with the military[55], the Torch, Toro and Captain America went after both the Sub-Mariner and Bucky and assisted them in saving Churchill and Namor's friend Betty Dean from U-Man[56]. Sent on a mission to the Swiss Alps to investigate strange happenings, the Torch and Toro were captured by the mad scientist Basil Frankenstein. Frankenstein (descendant of Victor Frankenstein creator of the Frankenstein's Monster) sought to duplicate the Torch's abilities in his own creation for the Nazis. The other Invaders came to the Torch and Toro's rescue, destroying Frankenstein's Nazi monster[57].
Back in the United States, the Torch and Toro became less restricted to just police work in New York City and expanded their scope to dealing with domestic crime, spies from Nazi Germany, Imperial Japanese invaders and more. They clashed with Nazi saboteur th Saint[58], saved Toro and the Young Allies from the Black Talon with Captain America[59], weapons smuggler Izan[60], the insane Javelin[61], and saved New York from destruction by Japanese spy Moppino and his Atom Expansion Ray[62]. Assisting with the war effort in the Pacific, the Human Torch and Toro stopped Japanese Agent X, and later stopped Nazi and Japanese spies from planting bombs all over New York's infrastructure[63]. They also prevented the Metal Mobsters from stealing an experimental metal called Y-9[64].

Returning to the Invaders, the Torch participated in a war bond parade that was interrupted by the Red Skull who captured the Torch, Toro, Captain America and Sub-Mariner. He then left Bucky (seeing him as no threat) and brainwashed the Torch and the others to do his bidding, sending them to attack American munitions factories[65]. When Bucky formed the Liberty Legion to counter his friends, the Red Skull sent the mind-controlled Invaders to attack various American landmarks. The Torch and Toro are sent to destroy the Lincoln Memorial. They are opposed by Legion memberes Red Raven and the Whizzer and forced to retreat[66]. Furious the Skull sent the Invaders to attack Wriggle Stadium during a Yankees again and they were once more opposed by the Liberty Legion. During the fight, Toro (freed from the Skull's control) destroyed the airship that housed the equipment that kept the Torch and the others under the Red Skull's thrall, freeing them from the Skull's control[67].

Returning to England with the Invaders, the Torch decides to take some time alone to brood over his condition following a Nazi air raid. While walking the streets he witnessed the Nazi vampire Baron Blood attacking first aid woman Jacqueline Falsworth. The Torch saves her life and is welcomed back to the home of her father Lord Montgomery who was the hero known as Union Jack during World War I. Learning that Baron Blood was a regular foe of Union Jack during the first war, the Human Torch summoned the rest of the Invaders to the Falsworth estate leading to another clash with Baron Blood. After the battle, the Torch introduces the Invaders to the Falsworth clan, including John, who unknown to them all is secretly Baron Blood himself[68]. The Human Torch began to grow to have feelings for Jacqueline, who was staunchly against going to war. She also began to show more attention toward Captain America, making the Torch jealous. With Union Jack coming out of retirement to join the Invaders, the Torch assisted the group in another clash with Baron Blood ending with the Baron's escape[69]. When it is learned that Baron Blood had been feeding on Jacqueline, the Torch and Toro hid on the Falsworth property while the other Invaders went searching for Baron Blood again, catching the Baron in an attempt of feeding on Jacqueline again. The Torch was unable to stop Baron Blood from escaping with Jacqueline due to a rainstorm snuffing out his flame. The Invaders eventually tracked Baron Blood to a cave where he was impaled through the heart with a stalagmite and killed. However the battle cost the Union Jack the use of his legs and Jacqueline required immediate medical attention[70].

Rushing Jacqueline to a military hospital[71], there it is determined that Jacqueline required a blood transfusion but an element in her blood caused by Baron Blood's bite made even Type O blood incapable of assisting her. The Torch then offered his artificial blood, which miraculously worked. Although when Jacqueline came around, she mistook the Torch for Captain America, breaking the heroes hart. when the other Invaders were attacked by the Blue Bullet, the Torch was too weak from the transfusion to help. However, Jacqueline found she was endowed with super-speed powers from the mixture of the Torch's blood and the vampire enzyme and came to their rescue. She then joined the group as Spitfire[72]. Upset at developments, the Torch left the scene and contemplating leaving the Invaders until he questioned John Gold (the Blue Bullet) about why he turned against his country, and learned that his brother Jacob Goldstein was imprisoned in the Jewish ghettos of Warsaw, Poland. The
Torch then rallied the Invaders to travel into Poland and help rescue Jacob. Jacob, a student of Jewish mythology refused to abandon his work and the Torch and the others were soon captured by the Nazis[73]. They were taken prisoner by the Nazi known as the Face, but were rescued by Goldstein who managed to transform himself into the Golem of Jewish lore[74]. Returning to England, the Torch and the Invaders were upstaged by a group of new British heroes called the Crusaders who ended up taking the task of protecting the King of England from the Invaders[74]. However, the Invaders soon learned that the Crusaders were -- unknown to them -- backed by a Nazi spy seeking to assassinate the King, and the two groups helped foil the plot[75].

Soon after the Crusaders incident, the Invaders were given a headquarters in England within Big Ben. Torch, Cap and the Sub-Mariner were then given a mission to capture three Nazi agents: the Hyena, the Shark and Agent Axis. The Torch was dispatched to capture the Hyena, but was captured by the villain who extracted some of the Torch's blood to use to empower Nazi agents. Before the Hyena could eliminate the hero he was teleported away by the cosmic being known as the Grandmaster[76]. Finding himself transported to Nazi occupied France with Captain America and Sub-Mariner, the three heroes were used in a cosmic competition between the Grandmaster and the future warlord Kang and pitted against three of the modern era Avengers, Yellowjacket, Black Panther and the Vision. The Avengers easily defeated the three wartime heroes thanks to the Vision's phasing powers[77]. As the Avengers attempted to explain to the three Invader what was happening they were whisked back to their own time. The Grandmaster then returned the Invaders back to where their three foes had met and easily defeated them. The Torch recovered his stolen blood. The Torch's memories of his battle against the Avengers soon faded from his memories[76].

Returning to the US with Toro, the Human Torch exposed sculptor turned spy Frank Portl[78]. When Nazi forces attempted to break out the Python from prison, the Human Torch and Toro worked with the Sub-Mariner and soon found themselves reunited with the Torch's creator Professor Horton. Horton was captured by the Python and forced to use the device he used to create the Torch to boost his powers exponentially. Turned into a compliant slave of the Python, the Torch terrorized New York City until he was restored to normal by Toro, the Sub-Mariner, and Horton. In the process the heroes prevented a Nazi invasion of New York and slew the Python. Afterward, the Torch and Horton parted on decent terms[79]. Back in New York the flaming duo stopped Von Brukk's attempt to steal TNT to blow up air craft factories in the area[80] and later captured Captain von Spitz and his spies[81].

Returning to England with the Invaders the Human Torch joined them in tracking down the Private Biljo White -- creator of the Major Victory comic book, whose title hero had an origin similar to Captain America -- who had been captured by the Nazis. Tracking White to Hitler's stronghold in Germany, the Torch and the others were trounced by Master Man and taken prisoner[82]. While they managed to get information about Operation Rebirth out of White, the result only empowered one Nazi agent turning her into Warrior Woman. When the Invaders attempted to escape, they were defeated by the combined might of Master Man and Warrior Woman. With Captain America left for death, the Human Torch and the others are then recaptured[83]. They are then brought to Berlin to be executed following the marriage of Master Man and Warrior Woman[84]. An attempt to rescue them by Captain America and the Destroyer failed and resulted in the capture of both Captain America and Spitfire[85]. However the Destroyer (taking on his fathers guise of Union Jack) came to the Invaders rescue, freeing them during the wedding. During the battle, the Torch became enraged when Toro proved incapable of melting bullets fired at him and was shot[86]. With the aid of Dyna-Mite, the Invaders managed to escape Nazi Germany in a Nazi bomber, but were forced to splash dive into the English Channel[87]. Rescued by the British navy and brought back to England, the Torch tells the other Invaders of how Toro came to become his partner[15].

In England, the Torch is told by doctors that Toro requires a specialized surgery that can only be carried out by an American surgeon named Hijiri Sabuki. When the Invaders were ordered to assist in preventing the Nazis from invading Egypt, the Torch trusted Toro's care to Bucky who traveled to the United States to seek out Sabuki. In Egypt the Torch and Sub-Mariner were tricked by Dr. Abdul Faoul to recover an ancient artifact allowing him to transform into the Scarlet Scarab and use its powers against the heroes[88]. Although Namor and the Torch were initially defeated by the Scarab, the rogue super-human joined the Invaders when he learned his Nazi allies intended to occupy Egypt themselves, and they soon defeated the invading force[89]. With business done in Europe, the Torch accompanied Captain America and the Sub-Mariner back in the United States to check on Toro's progress[90]. Following Bucky's trail, they learned that Sabuki was placed in a Japanese relocation camp. Arriving there, they learned that Bucky, Toro, Sabuki, his daughter Gwendolyne were captured by Agent Axis. Tracking down the hideout of Agent Axis, the Torch and the others crashed in just as Sabuki betrayed Axis by reviving Toro, and empowering Gwen and Davey Mitchell another prisoner[91]. The Invaders then captured Agent Axis with the aid of Bucky and the others who formed their own team the Kid Commandos[92]. Following this adventure, the Human Torch was briefly possessed by the spirit of the Vision to help the Captain America's future self (also possessing the body of his past self) to locate a slice of a mystical apple that held the fate of the universe in the balance[93][94].

Back in the United States the Torch contacted his long time friends with Carl Burgos a writer/artist at Timely Comics, to provide an idea for a write story that made fun of Nazi leader Adolf Hitler and arranged to have the comics air dropped all over Nazi Germany. Angry, Hitler ordered assassins in New York to kill the comic book creator. The Human Torch, Toro and Carl's colleague Bill Everett saved Carl before he could be fatally poisoned[95]. The Torch and Toro stopped War Stamp counterfeiter Big Eyes in New York[96], the Hooded Gang lynch mob in Somerville, and claustrophobic bank robber Johnny Clostro[97]. Later he assisted the Young Allies, Captain America and Betty Ross stop the Red Skull's plot to poison everyone in Washington D.C., an adventure that ended in the Red Skull's seeming demise[98].

Briefly returning to England with the Invaders, the Human Torch once more clashed with the Teutonic Knight who had used stolen plans to build his flying arsenal warship[49]. After destroying the ship, the Torch and the others next stopped an attempt by Baron Strucker to assassinate Winston Churchill[99]. The Torch next accompanied the Invaders to Russia to help deliver tanks to Joseph Stalin. Their mission was compromised when Hitler and a time travelling Dr. Doom pulled Thor out of the ancient past and tricked him to battle the Invaders[100]. However, they managed to convince the thunder god that he was being tricked and prevented Stalin's assassination[101]. Returning to England, the Torch and the other Invaders investigated why the Destroyer had turned against the allies, and exposed Master Man, who was posing as the hero[102]. The Torch, Sub-Mariner and Captain America were next called by to the United States where they learned from the Whizzer that the Liberty Legion and Professor Schneider were captured by Nazi operative Iron Cross[102]. After their initial clash with Iron Cross, the heroes chased him to a U-Boat where the armored Nazi set the U-Boat to sink with the Liberty Legion inside while he escaped with the professor[103]. The combined forces of the Invaders and Liberty Legion incapacitated the Iron Cross' armor and rescued the professor[104].

After stopping Nazi spies at a factory and taking on the Whizzer and Miss America as members of the team, the Invaders are called to San Diego to investigate spy activity there, calling on the Kid Commandos to meet them there[105]. When they arrive they find the Kid Commandos have been defeated in battle with U-Man and fail to stop the rogue Atlantean from kidnapping Golden Girl. The Torch joins the Invaders and Kid Commandos in rescuing Golden Girl from U-Man and his employer the Japanese spy known as Lady Lotus[106]. Later, the Torch assisted the Invaders in stopping a resurrected Baron Blood from causing chaos at Idlewilde Airfield[107]. As Baron Blood fled the scene, the Torch followed his trail to the House of Lotus, where he stumbled upon Lady Lotus' gather of U-Man, Baron Blood, Master Man and Warrior Woman. Using her hypnotic power on the Human Torch, Lady Lotus and her Super-Axis team clashed with the Invaders. During the course of the battle, the Invaders managed to free the Torch from the mind control and he assisted his allies in defeating Super-Axis[108].

On June 19, 1942 The Human Torch joined the other Invaders on security detail for a meeting between President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. During this duty, they saved the two world leaders from two Nazi assassins equipped with a growth formula to increase their size[109]. On June 22nd the Human Torch joined his fellow Invaders in preventing a Nazi U-Boat from bombing New York harbor. This led to a clash between Dr. Nemesis and his group of Nazi super-operatives Battle-Axis. Following a sound defeat against Battle-Axis, the Torch and the others traveled to Liberty Legion headquarters where Thin Man informed them that the members of Battle-Axis were all mostly failed American super-heroes[110]. They are soon met by Miss America who tells them that Battle-Axis had captured the Whizzer and were going to Los Angeles to capture a John Gold, who had relocated there after the Invaders rescued his brother in Warsaw. While the others search for Gold at his lab, the Human Torch and Sub-Mariner try his home. There they find Dr. Death and Jacob Goldstien who was being manipulated into Battle-Axis' service. During the fight, Jacob transformed into the Golem and easily defeated the Torch and Sub-Mariner, taking the Torch prisoner in the process[111]. Prisoner of Dr. Nemesis, the Torch learned that he was his creators old partner James Bradley. Nemesis also revealed that there was a second android that he and Horton created that he had taken following their dissolution, but he always sought to obtain the original before joining the Nazis. Before Dr. Nemesis could activate an earthquake device to shake up the west coast the Invaders found the Human Torch and Whizzer. Before they could free their comrades, they were then felled by the ace in Dr. Nemesis' plan -- the other-dimensional Vision whom Nemesis had blackmailed into helping him[2]. When the Torch attempted to escape again he was once more incapacitated. However, Captain America broke himself and the other Invaders free when he made Battle-Axis member Volton realize he was the second android and was programmed with false memories. In the final battle, Dr. Nemesis was seemingly killed by Volton and was defeated in battle by the Human Torch. In the battles aftermath Battle-Axis was defeated and turned over to the authorities[112]. Following this adventure, the Torch and Toro joined Captain America, Bucky, the Destroyer, Black Widow, Black Marvel, Blazing Skull, and the Black Marvel in invading a Nazi compound in Europe[6].

After, the Torch and Toro travel to Canada on vacation, the Torch and Toro prevented the so-called "Canadian Fuhrer's" bombings of Canadian cities[113]. Returning to the United States, the Torch and Toro stopped a spy ring led by J-97[114]. The Torch and the Invaders also banded together to defend the Brooklyn shipyards from what they believed to be an attack by the time displaced Thor Corps[115][116]. The Torch later teamed up with Captain America once more to stop the Owl's planned invasion of the United States through a movie set in California but were beat to the punch by the Young Allies[117]. Later the Torch and Toro tackled the Bloodsucker Plants[118], and Stumpy's gang of fingerprint planters[119].

Joining the American Navy on patrol of the Atlantic, the Human Torch and Toro aid in the attack of a Nazi U-Boat battalion and discover that the Sub-Mariner was aboard one of the ships. Thinking Namor was a spy, the two heroes turned their sometime ally over to the British authorities and he was locked up in Castle Depthford. The Sub-Mariner escaped and was soon tracked back to New York City. The Torch and Toro soon learned that the Sub-Mariner was posing as a traitor in order to learn how the Nazis were learning the positions of American boats. They discovered that it was the work of members of the old "White" Russia, the Baron and Baroness Kidersky who were famous ballerinas that used interpretative dance to send messages to their Nazi cohorts. Taking them captive, the Torch, Toro and Sub-Mariner then forced them to put on a show that eventually led a massive Nazi fleet into an American ambush and aided in the sinking of all the ships[120]. When the ambassador of a South American nation was later kidnapped by the Nazi spy known as the Cobra, the Torch and Toro came to the rescue[121], exposed a plot by Nazis to poison food concentrates being shipped to American soldiers fighting abroad[122], and stopped would be ransomer and cross-dressing villain Madam Crime[123]. In addition to this, the Torch and Toro also stopped Nazi spy the Beak form replacing supplies being shipped to the Russian front with junk to strain American-Russian relations[124]. The Torch later helped the Young Allies battle Professor Kraut and the "Comet of Doom"[125].

While defending an American ship with Captain America and the Sub-Mariner, the Human Torch was captured by Nazi agents. Unknown to the heroes at the time, the Nazis had convinced Namor's mother Princess Fen that the United States posed a threat to Atlantis, and in exchange for being able to conduct their ghastly experiments in Atlantis they would defend her from the supposed American "threat". Examining the Torch's
body, they brainwashed him and boosted his powers to extreme levels and set him to attack just as Captain America and Namor had arrived to convince the Atlanteans to turn against the Nazis, "confirming" the Nazis claims[126]. The process put the Torch at risk of burning himself out, but after he was "defeated" by Nazis he was put away. Nazi scientists then continued examining the Torch and created an army of Human Torches they dubbed the Firebrand Squadron to use against the Allies. When Captain America broke out of his cell, he managed to convince Fen of the Nazis lies when they unleashed the Torch against both Cap and Namor. Luring the Torch to the chamber where the Nazi guinea pigs, Captain America made the Torch look at the atrocities there which snapped the Torch free from the Nazis control. However, the Nazis soon unleashed the Firebrand Squadron to attack an American flee above them[127]. Luring the Firebrand Squad into a ship that Cap ordered the American troops to attack, the Torch made an attempt to convince the rogue creations to fight their programming and think for themselves. However, as the ship sank and the Firebrands refused to listen to reason, the Torch used his powers to destroy them. With the Nazis in Atlantis having surrendered, Captain America and Namor force the scientists who experimented on the Torch to restore his normal powers and repair the damage done to him[128].

In October of 1942 the Human Torch and Toro joined Captain America and Bucky into Shanghai, China, to locate boy genius Zhang Chin clashing with Imperial Japanese forces[129]. They succeed in getting the boy to the extraction site. During the entire rescue operation, Zhang became fascinated by the Human Torch's abilities[130]. In early November of that year, the Human Torch and the Invaders joined a squad of Russian troops led by Colonel Vasily Karpov to lead an attack on the Nazi occupied town of Kronas. There they encountered the Red Skull and Master Man testing out a new ray gun weapon, forcing the villains to set it to explode and flee the scene. The Torch and the others had to stay behind to save the villagers who home was burned to the ground.

1943

At the beginning of 1943, the Human Torch joined the Invaders in occupied Poland to help with the resistance movement. When Toro accidentally blew their cover while trying to prepare a surprise for Bucky's 18th birthday, they were ambushed by Master Man and Warrior Woman[132]
Returning to the United States, the Human Torch and Toro came to the aid of Professor Horton and his niece Doris to help protect stolen Nazi secrets she smuggled into the United States from Sweden[133]. Continuing their solo adventures together the Torch and Toro faced constant clashes with both Nazi and Japanese forces. The pair stopped Nazi Mr. Heiters attempt to blow up American ships[134], exposed experimental Japanese fighter planes hidden in Death Valley[135], and prevented Nazi sympathizer Eric Ward from blowing up the recently completed Mount Rushmore
monument[136]. Returning to the Invaders, the Torch assisted his comrades in locating Dr. Leo Jacobson who developed a cure for Vampirism so that they could cure their comrade Captain America after he was bitten by Baron Blood[137].

After, he and Toro prevented Colonel von Getter from stealing a new American bomber[138], and prevent Herr Blutcher's attempted invasion of England[139]. Returning to New York they foiled a Nazi attempt to replace dummy rounds used in practice air raids with life ammo, and prevented Nazi agent the Blue Diamond from stealing a new experimental "Puff Gun" invented by Professor Philo Baker[140]. After exposing Nazi spies using prescription cough medicine to smuggle explosives[141] he joined Captain America on the west coast to warn the Young Allies of a secret Japanese tunnel, only to learn that the Allies had already destroyed it[142].

Later, the Human Torch and Toro exposed Nazi saboteur Herr von Richter[143], foiled Captain von Sar's bombing plot[144], stopped the mad scientist named Bashon and his Ape-Men[145], and put an end to the mysterious murderer known as the Sewer Man[146]. Travelling to Turkey, the Torch and Toro next foil plans by Nazi spy Elanor von Drei to possess as Yashmak that would give her command over warriors in that country[147]. Returning to the US, the Torch and Toro then came to the aid of a German defector who was targeted for elimination for smuggling state secrets out of the country[148]. Participating in a FBI sting operation, the Torch and Toro next prevented Nazi agents from claiming the body of their dead comrade Franz Papp which contained a hidden tattoo revealing defense secrets[149]. The Torch then reunited with the Invaders and assisted on an attack on the Red Skull and Nazi forces in Europe[150]. Next, the Torch and Toro prevented the Carnival of Doom from slaughtering the entire cast of an Anti-Nazi play[151]. When Nazis began launching massive rockets from occupied France at the Untied States that could travel the length of the Atlantic, the Human Torch and Toro traveled there and destroyed the arsenal. After returning to the states, they reversed the brainwashing done on Russian war hero Sonia Petroya by the Nazi agent known as the Rabbit[152].

Earning a citation from the President, the Torch and Toro traveled to Washington D.C. where they prevented Nazis led by Moonface from detonating bombs planted at key government facilities[153]. Next they stopped the Claw's acts of sabotage across the United States[154], clashed with the saboteur known as the Vulture[155], stopped the proliferation of tainted black market beef sold by Nazi agents[156], foiled the Nazi's Purple Terror plot, and prevented Nazi spies from using newly developed "War Water" to destroy the George Washington Bridge[157]. The Torch and Toro clashed with Nazi agents led by Zomber[158], stopped a Nazi attempt to blow up the White House[159], stopped Nazi killer the Masked Fiend[158], captured Nazi scientist Professor Fear[160], Japanese assassin the Kangaroo[161].

Later, the Human Torch and Toro began operating out of an office that the Torch rented in New York City. From there they spoiled the Japanese scientist known as the Beetle from unleashing a swarm of lethally poison Japanese Beetles[162]. Next, the duo traveled to Russia where they assisted Allied Forces on the front and stopped a Nazi plot to prevent the ousting of Nazi forces in the region[163]. Returning to the United States, the Torch and Toro foil the black market meat operation of the Head[164], take down Nazi operative the Hawk's airship "Der Tag"[155], Nazi operatives Ratter, the White Vampire and Herr Schmutz[165][166]. After exposing a Nazi spy Fritz von Arnheim posing as a Civil War veteran along the Mississippi River[167][168], disgruntled stunt man the Director of Death in Hollywood[169], and stop umbrella wielding criminal Wilbur the Great[170]. Travelling abroad again, the Torch and Toro prevent Nazi spy the Wisp from souring relations between the United States and the Middle East[171] before travelling to France to assist their fellow Invaders against Nazi forces led by the Red Skull and Master Man[172].

In December 1943, the Human Torch and Toro accompanied their fellow Invaders and a squad of American troops into Monte Casino Italy to stop the Nazi's newest project Operation: Time Ghost. Ambushed by Nazi troops, the Torch, Toro, Captain America, Bucky, Sub-Mariner and Private Paul Anslen all found themselves transported to the modern era by the
Cosmic Cube. The group appeared in New York City as the Thunderbolts were once more attempting to apprehend Spider-Man for violating the Superhuman Registration Act. Thinking the Thunderbolts to be Nazi operatives, the Torch and the others easily trounced them, the Torch felling Venom with his flame powers, before the group fled to make sense of what happened to them[173]. Realizing that they were in the future, the heroes were soon confronted by Iron Man and the Mighty Avengers who had come to contain the Invaders before they could learn too much about the future and endanger history. The Invaders, unwilling to trust anyone in this era attempted to fight back but were all captured save for the Sub-Mariner who managed to escape[174].

The Torch and the others were then detained within the SHIELD helicarrier. There, the Torch was visited by some of the helicarrier's Life Model Decoys, who claimed to be sentient and asked the Torch to help liberate them from their slavery under SHIELD[175]. Eventually, the Torch was freed by Bucky who was charged with freeing the other Invaders. The Torch is horrified by the "slaughter" of the LMD's, and seeing the serial numbers stamped on their wrists likens them to the many Jews in the concentration camps back in their own time[176]. Soon Dr. Strange's New Avengers joined the fray helping the Invaders escape, however Captain America and Namor were recaptured[177]. While the Invaders and New Avengers go searching for the Cosmic Cube, the Torch abandons them in order to attempt to liberate the LMD's aboard the SHIELD helicarrier. Linking to the LMD's the Torch is able to stage a coup of the helicarrier and has the LMD's lead him to where Captain America and Bucky are being held prisoner. His is taken to a room where his two friends are being contained in a Virtual Reality simulation and are at risk of dying in it, the Torch agrees to go into the virtual world to free his friends[3]. However, while the Torch is in the VR simulation he is betrayed by the LMD's who have been taken over by robot Ultron who had been manipulating the Human Torch in order to feed on his blood in the hopes of becoming truly alive[178]. Freed by the modern eras Captain America, the Human Torch goes after and destroys the Ultron controlled LMD's in revenge. By this time the New Avengers had recaptured the Cosmic Cube, but before they could use it to send the heroes back home, Paul Ansel grabbed Cube and used it to go back in time in the hopes of saving his fellow soldiers from dying in combat. This caused a time wave to come crashing to the present threatening to erase everyone out of existence. Dr. Strange then used his magic to send the Torch, Toro, Cap, Bucky, Namor, Iron Man, Ms. Marvel, Wasp, Spider-Woman, Luke Cage, Spider-Man, and Wolverine to 1943 to correct the past[179].

Upon their arrival they were shocked to find out that the Red Skull had taken control of the Cube and used it to take over the world. After fleeing Nazi occupied New York City aboard an Atlantean sub, the assembled heroes traveled to Europe to find that the Skull had erected a massive "Aryan Wall" around the the continent[180]. Rerouting to Wakanda they then teamed up with the Black Panther, Nick Fury and his Howling Commandos, and used a drill to dig their way into Europe. There they reunited with their comrades Spitfire and Union Jack but were too late to prevent two of the Red Skull's Dogs of War of learning their presence and reporting to to their master[181]. Travelling to Berlin, the gathered heroes faced opposition from U-Man, Baron Blood, Master Man, Warrior Woman, Thor, and Iron Cross[182]. After defeating these villains, the heroes were attacked by the Red Skull, and the Torch was slain in battle. However, when Paul Ansel retrieved the Cosmic Cube he used it to defeat the Skull and restore history back to its proper order, resurrecting the Torch in the process. The Torch's memories of these
events were wiped from his mind as a result.

1944

1945

Post World War II

Though the original Captain America and his sidekick Bucky were seemingly killed in action, secret replacements for them served alongside the Torch and the rest of The Invaders in the All-Winners Squad during the postwar years. In 1949 American criminals seeking to destroy the Torch obtained a chemical known as Solution X-R from Soviet intelligence. One criminal sprayed the solution over the Torch and Toro, dousing their flame and paralyzing them. The criminals then buried the Torch beneath the Nevada desert. However, the criminals had accidentally chosen to bury him beneath a future atomic testing site.

1953

In December 1953, the blast of an atomic bomb dropped on the site freed the Torch, and the radiation reactivated his flame. The Torch resumed his crimefighting career and his partnership with Toro.

1955

In 1955 the Human Torch sensed that the radiation from the bomb was causing him to lose control of his flame, and that he would eventually "die" by burning himself out. After bidding farewell to Toro, the Torch flew to a desert in the western United States where he tried to destroy himself by overloading his solar cells in a single burst of maximum output flame. The Torch succeeded in burning himself out and plunged to earth to lie insensate.

Modern Age

Immortus

Following the defeat and deactivation of the original Torch, his corpse was split into two chronal duplicates by the time traveler Immortus[184].
The first duplicate was finally discovered by the criminal genius called the Mad Thinker, one of the world's leading experts on robotics and androids. Using his knowledge of androids, the Thinker restored most of the Torch's original synthetic tissue and nervous system. The Thinker partially restored the android's memories but coerced the Torch into battling the Thinker's enemies, the Fantastic Four (which counted a new Human Torch among their number). On realizing the implications of what the Thinker wanted him to do, the Torch sacrificed his artificial life to save the Fantastic Four from a sneak attack by the Thinker's computer Quasimodo. The Thinker fled, and the Fantastic Four left the Torch's body in the Thinker's laboratory in Nevada[185].

The other duplicate was recovered by the robot known as Ultron who sought to use the Torch as a vessel of revenge against his creator Henry Pym and the super-hero group known as the Avengers[186]. This recreation of the Human Torch became known as the Vision[187] and ultimately became a
long time member of the Avengers.

Avengers West Coast

The Mad Thinker buried the Torch in a non-descript grave. The hero team Avengers West Coast revived the Human Torch when in the course of investigating the Vision's origin. They invited the revived Torch to join their team, and he gratefully accepted[188].
However, he served for only a short time before taking a personal leave of absence, during which time he lost his powers to save the life of his aged comrade Lady Crichton. He then semi-retired from adventuring, although Hammond returned to join the Avengers' West Coast branch as reserve member, and served alongside the team on a couple of adventures.

Heroes for Hire

Months later, he agreed to lead the re-launched hero team Heroes for Hire with Iron Fist and Cage, behind-the-scenes in an office capacity as CEO of Oracle, Inc., Namor's business representation in the States that acted as parent company for the Heroes. After spearheading several adventures, Hammond was revealed to be used by the villainous Master to destroy the Heroes for Hire, although the Heroes triumphed over their foe and rescued Hammond, who recovered. During this time, Hammond recovered his ability to throw fireballs, although the full extent of his powers remain lost. When the unscrupulous
Stark-Fujikawa Corporation bought Oracle and began restructuring Heroes for Hire, Hammond resigned.

New Invaders

Hammond returned as part of the New Invaders, taking the young android Tara under his wing. He ended up sacrificing his life to save this new "Lady Torch." The majority of the Invaders left the team after this.

Dead Again

In the months following the "Secret Invasion" of Earth, Hammond's inert body was discovered in the UN building by retired Chinese scientist, Zhang Chin. Chin's agent, the Man-With-No-Face, recovered the body and brought it back to Taipei where Chin modified Jim's DNA and cell structure into a virus. Chin intended to use this virus to eradicate half the world's population, so that resources could be better controlled. This incident prompted Captain America (Bucky Barnes) and the Sub-Mariner to go to China to rescue their old teammate's remains. They succeed in stopping Chin and made sure that Hammond received a proper burial.

Third Resurrection

Later exhumed by the Mad Thinker, the Torch was used in experiments involving the "Horton Cells" that made up his body and in the process was revived as a living weapon the Thinker intended to sell to A.I.M. Though set on a course for destruction, the Torch was stopped by his formerly-deceased ex-sidekick Toro and the Thinker's control was lifted, though the interaction with rogue Horton Cells developed by the Thinker led to the Torch's body degrading. Not wanting to sit around waiting to die, the Torch assisted Toro in finding answers about his parents, leading the duo to South America and the Nazi colony of New Berlin.
Torch later on joined his fellow Invaders member Namor at Utopia to fix a section of the island. Hammond then questioned his own usefulness in todays modern world. When Anole and Rockslide asked him if he killed Hitler he answered that he did.

Joining the Secret Avengers

When Steve Rogers became America's new Top Cop, he formed a secret team of Avengers to perform the missions the Avengers could not without tarnishing their image. When the team changed roster, Cap wanted Jim to join, along with Venom, Giant-Man and Captain Britain. Unfortunately, he was badly damaged on his first mission against the Father and his Descendants, a group of machines based on Hammond, and left comatose in a stasis tube at the team's HQ, the Lighthouse, while repairing.[57]

He was later freed by the Black Ant, an agent of the Descendants and finished being repaired by the Father, who convinced him to join his side. He then led an army of robots during a raid on New York, with the goal of forcibly assimilating the human race through the use of nanotechnology and give the control of the world to the machines, robots and cyborgs.[58]
Human Torch (Android) (Earth-616)

After Captain Britain made him come into his senses, Jim fought against the Descendants, and when Hawkeye couldn't, he destroyed the Orb of Necromancy, the artifact which gave life to the Descendants. Jim flew away, with the weight in his consciousness that he killed an entire race.[59]
All-New Invaders

Jim located in the small town Blaketon, and kept a low profile as a garage mechanic, until Tanalth the Pursuer confronted him to recover the information of the location of one of the fragments of the Gods' Whisperer. He was almost defeated by the Pursuer and killed after she recovered the information she needed, but was saved by the arriving Captain America and Winter Soldier.[60] With their help, Jim was saved from his attackers, and they decided to reform the Invaders in order to rescue Namor from Hala, the Kree homeworld, and prevent the aliens from using the Whisperer.[61]

As soon as they got to Hala with the help of the original Vision, the Invaders were ambushed by the Pursuer Corps[62] and later forced to fight the Whisperer-controlled Ikaris. By faking his death, the Winter Soldier managed to get free the captured Vision[63] and distract Tanalth long enough for Captain America and the Human Torch to subdue the Kree soldiers present in the battle while Namor fought Ikaris. The Vision teleported to get help from the Eternals and recover the Whisperer. After that, the Invaders returned to Earth and later disbanded. Captain America confronted Jim regarding his identity crisis, and offered him a place in the ranks of S.H.I.E.L.D.

Powers and Abilities


Powers

 The original Human Torch possesses the mental ability to control ambient heat energy and the physical ability to envelop his entire body or portions of his body with fiery plasma without harm to himself. (Plasma is a super-heated matter that exists in the atmosphere of stars)
Ordinarily, when aflame, the Human Torch is enveloped by a low intensity flame of low level plasma (reddish, approximately 780 Fahrenheit), which ranges from 1 to 5 inches from his body. He can, however, generate much higher levels and flames about himself. The Torch refers to his highest, hottest levels of plasma that he can create as his "nova flame." The exact temperatures that his "nova flame" can attain are not known.

At an average rate of expenditure of energy, the Torch can stay aflame for about 16.8 hours. In his younger days, he could only maintain his flame for much briefer periods, and sometimes exhausted it while in combat. He cannot maintain his "nova flame" for as long a time as he can maintain his ordinary flame. The Torch can release all of his body's stored energy in one intense, omni-directional "nova-burst," which can reach about 1,000,000 F, and which is similar to the heat-pulse of a nuclear warhead detonation, with an are of total devastation of about 900 feet in diameter. (The Torch has claimed that he can destroy a small moon with his nova-burst.) This violent discharge uses his entire reserve of energy (except for the necessary to keep him alive) at once, entirely exhausting his flame power. He generally requires at least 12 hours to recover entirely from such a feat.

The Human Torch can generate shapes composed of fire from any point on his body. (He usually employs his hands to "sculpt" the flames.) He can form fire into long streams, spheres, or even more complex shapes like letters in skywriting. These flames-objects will only remain their shapes as long as he concentrates upon them. The objects will only burn about 3 minutes before expiring unless the Torch continues to infuse them with energy. The temperature of these fiery projections is generally around 2,800 F (near the melting point of iron).

The Human Torch's plasma has a high hydrogen content, and is surrounded by an exuded cloud of mono-atomic hydrogen atoms. This hot cloud provides sufficient positive buoyancy for him to float. With mental stimulation of his flame, he can provide enough
lift to carry 180 pounds. By forming a jet from his feet, directed behind him, he can achieve speeds up to at least 140 miles per hour.

The Human Torch has the ability to mentally control the ambient heat energy within his immediate environment, even when he himself is not aflame. He can reduce objects' temperatures (if they are in a normal range for existing on Earth's surface) to about 30 F, raise them to several hundred degrees, or extinguish open flames. His radius of influence is about 80 feet. The heat energy he takes from the environment is absorbed into his own body. If he takes in a critical amount while he is not aflame, he will become aflame. There are unknown limits to the amount of flame he can absorb into his own body harmlessly while he is himself aflame.

The Human Torch's flame is supported by the presence of oxygen, and thus is extinguished in low air pressure or a vacuum. The Torch's flame can be extinguished by smothering materials, such as water, sand, fire-fighting foam, and heat-resistant blankets, unless his flame is at such an intensity that it immediately vaporizes such materials on contact. If hit with small amounts of water, up to about five gallons, the Torch can turn it to steam with relatively little effort. More water than that could extinguish his flame at its normal level, and he would have to wait until he could evaporate the residual moisture before re-ignition.

The Torch's light output is mostly in the infrared and infrared region of the spectrum, and is invisible to the unaided eye. Less that 10% of his total power output is in the visible portion of the spectrum. Thus, the Torch, when aflame, is dimmer than one would expect of so powerful an energy source.

The Human Torch is unaffected by heat and flames, including his own, even when part of him is aflame and the rest of him is not. His flesh cannot be scalded or burned by any heat source whose level is below that of his maximum output. The original Human Torch can telekinetically control not only flames and flame
objects that he himself creates, but also flames he did not create.

Abilities

Strength level

The Human Torch possesses the normal human strength of a man in his middle twenties who engages in moderate regular exercise (however as an android he may of had slightly higher strength and/or endurance).

Weaknesses


Paraphernalia

Equipment

Formerly Avengers Identicard

Transportation

Formerly Avengers Quinjet

Weapons


Comments